Contributors: Greg Linington, Booker Magure, Obert Hodzi, Tamuka Charles Chirimambowa, Tinashe Lukas Chimedza, Eldred V Masunungure, Lesley Blaauw, Hakeem Onapajo, Ufo Okeke Uzodike, Frederick O Wanyama, Jørgen Elklit, Bodil Folke Frederiksen, Preben Kaarsholm, Lukong Stella Shulika, Wilson Kamau Muna, Stephen Mutula
Key terms: Zimbabwe, Elections, Constitutional, Controversies,Land, Indigenisation, Empowerment, Youth, Harmonised, Civil Society, Contested, Role, Authoritarian, Angola, Rigging, Courts, Judiciary, Nigeria, Ethnicity, Kenya, Monetary Clout, Politics, Presidential
Contributors: Denis Kadima (ed), Matthijs Bogaards, Danielle Resnick, Susan Booysen, Motlamelle Anthony Kapa, Victor Shale, Samson Lembani, Felix Owuor, Alistair McMillan, Philippe Biyoya Makutu, Rossy Mukendi Tshimanga, Tom Lodge
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Contributors: Kealeboga J Maphunye, David Sebudubudu, Bugalo Maripe, M E Mavungu, Sadiki Koko, Westen Kwatemba Shilaho, Esther Kibuka-Sebitosi, Kealeboga Maphunye, Gerhard Tötemeyer
Key terms: Botswana, Botswana Democratic Party (BDP), electoral competition, flawed, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), irregularities, lacking credibility, dynamics of misconduct, 2011, fraud, systematic, state-sponsored, rig, incumbent, popular protest, stolen elections, violence, terrorising, patterns, causes, consequences, prevention strategy, stakeholders, 2013, Kenya, transitional, Uhuru Kenyatta, William Ruto, International Criminal Court, post-election, Kikuyu, Kalenjin, tribal alliance, ethnic alliances, spoliation, gender, women, historical, ideological, traditions, barriers to entry, stereotypes, rhetoric, tokenism, patriarchy. Critically SADC, Ubuntu, Reform, Electoral Act, Namibia, consulted, public meetings administrative managerial, normative character, justice, principles
Contributors: J Shola Omotola, J Shola Omotola, E Remi Aiyede, Idris Erameh, Tosin Orimolade, Richard Asante, Franklin Obeng-Odoom, Ransford Edward Van Gyampo, Emmanuel Debrah, Charles Nyuykonge, Keitumetse Letsoalo, Festus Aubyn, Mustapha Abdallah, Tom Lodge
Key terms: Ghana, December 2012, Elections, African, Perspective, Institutional Framework, Consolidating, Reversing, Electoral, Commission, Administration, Democracy, Quasi-Public, Entities, Ideology, Youth, Parties, Manifestos, Politics, Oil, Presidential, Resource Curse, Sustaining, Peace, Stability, Appraising, National, Security Task Force, Film review, Watching
Contributors: André Mbata Mangu, Timothy B Reid, Tlohang W Letsie, Anja Osei, Adriano Nuvunga, Eduardo Sitoe, Tom Wolf, Lloyd M Sachikonye
Key terms: Democracy, States, Regional, Sub-Regional, Election, Benchmarks, DRC, Global, Governance, Soft Power, Lesotho, Consolidation, Democracy, Party, Voter, Linkage, Senegal, Abdoulaye Wade, Parti Démocratique Sénégalais, Institutionalisation, Mozambique, Opposition, International, Justice, Public Opinion, ICC, Ethnic, Polarisation, Kenya, Continuity, Reform, Zimbabwe, Referendum.
Contributors: Amanda Gouws, Benjamin Roberts, Jarè Struwig, Arlene Grossberg, Janine Hicks, Imraan Buccus, Lisa Vetten, Alexandra Leisegang, David Mandiyanike, Sofonea Shale, Carla Ackerman.
Key terms: Women, Local Government, Elections, South Africa, Electoral Commission, Gender Differences, Electoral Participation, Equality, Mainstreaming, Political Parties, Manifestos, Candidate Lists, Municipal, Planning, Violence, Marginalised, Majority, Zimbabwe, Transforming, Roles, Lesotho, Quotas, Rights-Based, Development, Service Del .ivery.
Contributors: Emmanuel Remi Aiyede, Dauda Abubakar, J Shola Omotola, Gbenga Aiyedogbon, Antonia Taiye Okoosi-Simbine, A Irene Pogoson, Osisioma B C Nwolise, Omo Aregbeyen, Olubukola Adesina.
Key terms: Politics, Electoral Reform, Nigeria, Legal, Constitutional, Framework, Federalism, Power Sharing, Presidential, Election, Participation, Voter Turnout, Gender, Political Parties, Patriarchy, Democratisation, Security, Cost of Elections, Monitoring, Observing.
Contributors: Abdul Rahman Lamin, David Dossou Zounmenou, Jasper Ayelazuno, Ben Simon Okolo, R Okey Onunkwo, Isaaka Souaré, Khabele Matlosa
Key terms: West Africa, Elections, Challenges, Democratic, Governance, Côte d'Ivoire, Post-electoral, Crisis, Ouattara, Ghana, Conflict management, Absolute Majority System, 2011, Nigeria, Empirical, Review, Presidential, Benin, Tension, Militarisation, Democratisation, Comparative Analysis, Niger, Guinea
Contributors: Francesca Marzatico, Roukaya Kasenally, Eva Palmans, R D Russon, Emmanuel O Ojo, David U Enweremadu, Christopher Isike, Sakiemi Idoniboye-Obu, Dhikru AdewaleYagboyaju, J Shola Omotola.
Key terms: Southern Sudan, Referendum, Self-determination, Legal Challenges, Mauritius, Democracy, Elections, 2010, Burundi, Democratie, Paix, Democratic, Local Government, South Africa, Democratisation, Nigeria, Public Perceptions, Judicial Decisions, Election Disputes, 2007, General, Judiciary, 2003, 2007, Democratic Consolidation, Fourth Republic, Corruption, Electoral Reform, Consolidation.
Contributors: Cherrel Africa, Mcebisi Ndletyana, Kealeboga J Maphunye, Vanessa Barolsky, Ebrahim Fakir, Zandile Bhengu, Josefine K Larsen, Bavusile B Maaba, Thabisi Hoeane, J M Kivilu, R Mmotlane.
Key terms: 2009, elections, Party, support, voter behaviour, Western Cape, Trends, patterns, 1994, Congress of the People, Evaluating, election management, South Africa, youth, participation, African National Congress, KwaZulu-Natal, resurgent, Zulu, ethno-nationalism, Racial, ethnic, Surveys, Scientific predictions.
Contributors: Roger Southall, Hamilton S Simelane, Adriano Nuvunga, M A Mohamed Salih, Blessings Chinsinga, Susan Booysen, Shauna Mottiar, Lesley Blaauw, Benson A Bana.
Key terms: Public Participation, Political, Challenge, Southern Africa, State, Elections, Protest, Swaziland, 2008, Elections,Mozambique, 2009, Democratic Consolidation, Critical, Malawi, Processes, Outcomes, Party, Opposition, South Africa, Role, Civil Society, KwaZulu-Natal, Conflict Dynamics, Peace, Namibia, National Assembly, Tanzania, 2010, General Elections, Review, Compendium of Elections 1989-2009, D Kadima, S Booysen.
Contributors: Norbert Kersting, Phillip Mtimkulu, Khabele Matlosa, Bernadeta Killian, Kevin S Fridy, Ernest T Mallya.
Key terms: Direct Democracy, Southern, East, Africa, Referendums, and Initiatives, One-Party Dominance, Lessons, South Africa, Role, SDC, Management, Zimbabwe, Post-election Crisis, Zanzibar?, Elections, Civil Society Organisations, State, Popular Participation, Tanzania, Review, African Peer Review Mechanism, Ross Herbert, Steven Gruzd, SAIIA.
Contributors: David K Leonard, Denis Kadima, Anna Schmidt, Titi Pitso, Felix Odhiambo Owuor, Sam Egwu, Khabele Matlosa.
Key terms: Elections, Conflict, Africa, Democratisation, DRC, Political Economy, Sierra Leone, Elections, 2007, 2008, Political, Institutional, Context, 2007, Kenya, Reforms, Nigeria, 1999, Democracy.
Contributors: Gilbert M Khadiagala, Rok Ajulu, Korwa G Adar, Shilaho Westen Kwatemba, Felix Odhiambo Owuor, Frederick Ogenga, Samuel Kariuki.
Key terms: Peacemaking, in Kenya, 2007, Elections, Democracy, Regional, Violence, Legal Framework, GNU, Separation of Powers, National Legislative Assembly, Ethnicity, Political, Pluralism, Electoral, Laws, Process, Role, Media, Botched, Land Reform Programme, Crisis, 1963-2008, Review, Kenya’s Quest for Democracy: Taming the Leviathan, M Mutua, 2008.
Contributors: Khabele Matlosa, Jørgen Elklit, Francis K Makoa, Sehoai Santho, Fako Johnson Likoti, Sofonea Shale,Motlamelle A Kapa, Lira Theko, Khabele Matlosa, Victor Shale, Masilo Philemon Makhetha, Nthakeng Pheello Selinyane.
Key terms: 2007, General Election, Lesotho, MMP System, Managing, Post-Election, Conflict, Party, Alliances, Coalitions, Culture, Political, Tolerance, Electoral, System, Reform, Gender, Equality, Legitimacy, Role, Civil Society Organisations, Democratisation, Floor Crossing, Representative Democracy, Socio-Economic, Cost, Media, 1993, demilitarisation in Lesotho: The general election of 1993 and its aftermath, R Southall, T Petlane, Pretoria: Africa Institute of South Africa, 1995.
Contributors: Emmanuel O Ojo, E Remi Aiyede, Isaac Olawale Albert, Uno Ijim-Agbor, Said Adejumo, Michael Kehinde, N Olufemi Mimiko, J Shola Omotola, Osisioma B C Nwolise, N D Danjibo, Abubakar Oladeji, P F Adebayo, J Shola Omotola, Peter Vale.
Key terms: Nigeria, Elections, Theoretical Postulations, 2007, General Elections, Succession Crisis, Nascent, Democracy, Electoral, Laws, Review, Campaign, Independent, Commission, INEC, Impartial, Partial, Democrats, Political, Parties, Reversal, Formation, Context, Labour Party, Ondo State, Godfathers, Violence, Vote Buying, Public Perception, Reviews, Muslim Civic Cultures and Conflict Resolution: the Challenge of Democratic Federalism in Nigeria, John N Paden, 2005, Making Democracy Work In Nigeria: A review of Challenges of Sustainable Democracy in Nigeria, Emmanuel O Ojo.
Contributors: Peter Vale, Albert Domson-Lindsay, Sulaiman Kura, Victor Shale, Mohamed Salih & Abdalla Hamdok, Norbert Kersting, Maxi Schoeman, Charles Puttergill, Ernest T Mallya, Lesley Blaauw, Patrick Vander Weyden
Key terms: Future, Electoral, Studies, Critique, Democracy, West, Southern, Africa, Contemporary, Political, Parties, Institutionalisation, Sustainability, Democracy, Opposition, Alliances, Elections, Botswana, Lesotho, Zambia, Inclusive, System, Reform, Agenda, Voter Turnout, Rules, Infrastructure, Voting Behaviour, South Africa, Local, Government, 2006, Youth, Political Economy, Tanzania, Measuring, Support, Namibia, Intrinsic, Instrumental, Founding, DRC, Fragmented, Review, Democratic Reform in Africa: Its Impact on Governance and Poverty Alleviation, Muna Ndulo.
Contributors: David Sebudubudu, Monageng Mogalakwe, Mpho G Molomo, Patrick Molutsi, Onkemetse B Tshosa, Mogopodi H Lekorwe, Adam Mfundisi, Tidimane Ntsabane, Chris Ntau, Kaelo Molefhe, Lewis Dzimbiri, Onalenna Doo Selolwane, Victor Shale, Zein Kebonang, Wankie Rodrick Wankie, Zitha Mokomane, Monageng Mogalakwe, David Sebudubudu
Key terms: Pre-Colony, Post-Colony, Continuities, Discontinuities, Political, Power, Relations, Governance, Botswana, Democracy, Electoral, System, State, Global Perspective, Elections, Parliamentary Oversight, Role, Status, Independent, Commission, Civic, Participation, Voting Patterns, Youth, Politics, Leadership, Challenge, Opposition, Fragmentation, Intra-Party, Botswana Democratic Party, Gender, Observation, Monitoring, Social Capital, Trust, Consolidating, Trends, Civil Society, Relations, Review, 40 Years of Democracy in Botswana 1965-2005, Zibani Maundeni, 2005.
Contributors: Chris Landsberg, Karanja Mbugua, Jibrin Ibrahim, Thaddeus Menang, Churchill Ewumbue-Monono, Bertha Chiroro, Said Adejumobi, Sheila Bunwaree, Jeremy Seekings, Tom Lodge.
Key terms: Afro-governance, Continentalism, Africa, Emerging, Democratic, Regime, Resolution, Transformation, Election, Conflict, Legislation, Electoral, Process, Third-term, Future, Nigeria, Election, Management, Cameroon, Independent, Candidature, Dilemmas, Opposition, Political, Parties, Southern Africa, Reviving, Failed State, 2005, General Election, Liberia, Gender, Governance, Mauritius, Partisan, Realignment, Cape Town, 1994-2004, Irish, Review, Electoral System Design: The New International IDEA Handbook.
Contributors: Peter Vale, Norman Mlambo, Sue Mbaya, Lloyd M Sachikonye, Choice Ndoro, Bertha Chiroro, Martin R Rupiya, Sehlare Makgelaneng
Key terms: South Africa, Zimbabwe, Democracy, Littoral, Political, Polarisation, Elections, Land, 2005, Parties, Persistent, Inequalities, Women, Role, National Youth Service/Militia, Parliamentary, Lessons, Movement for Democratic Change, Review, Zimbabwe: Injustice and Political Reconciliation..
Contributors: Debie LeBeau, Bertha Z Osei-Hwedie, David Sebudubudu, Wiseman Chijere Chirwa, Gilles Cistac, Joseph Topangu, Victor Shale, L Amédée Darga, Denis Kadima, Roukaya Kasenally, Claude Kabemba.
Key terms: Multiparty Democracy, Elections, Namibia, Botswana, 2004, Malawi, Challenge, Democracy, Justice, Electoral, Disputes, Mozambique, Post-Election, Prospects, Burundi, 2005, Lesotho, Local, Development, Governance, Electoral, Reform, Mauritius, Formation, Collapse, Revival,Political, Party, Coalitions, Mauritius, Ethnic, Logic, Calculation, Transitional, DRC, Role, Key, Stakeholders, Review, State of the Nation South Africa 2004-2005, John Daniel, Roger Southall, Jessica Lutchman.
Contributors: Thabisi Hoeane, Dirk Kotzé, Shauna Mottiar, Amanda Gouws, Khabele Matlosa, Laurence Piper, Heidi Brooks, Roger Southall, Tom Lodge.
Key terms: Racial, Ethnic, Interpretation, South Africa, 2004, Election, Political, Party, Funding, IFP, KZN, Women, Representation, Electoral, System, Democracy, HIV/Aids, Citizen, Participation, Result, Implications, Configuration, Dominant Party, System, Challenges, Post-Election, Reform The ANC After the 2004 Election, Tom Lodge.
Contributors: Eghosa E Osaghae, Dani W Nabudere, Shumbana Karume, Chaloka Beyani, Koki Muli, Joshua Bheki Mzizi, Abdul Rahman Lamin, Lloyd M Sachikonye, Christof Hartmann.
Key terms: Democracy, Africa, Institutional, Substantive, Traditional, Modern, Political, Systems, Contemporary, Governance, Party, Systems, SADC, Dominant Party, System, Human Rights, Mainstreaming, Gender, Public, Institution, Governance, Swazi, Monarchy, Moral, Dynamics, Democratisation, State, Post-Conflict, Peacebuilding, Consolidation, Sierra Leone, Zimbabwe, Constitutionalism, Challenges, Stability, Local, Comparative, Analysis, Reviews, South Africa's Second Democratic Election 1999: An Annotated Bibliography, From Cape Town To Congo: Southern Africa Involving Security Challenges, Beth Strachan, Mwesiga Baregu, Christopher Landsberg.